The Jaunsar region, is a tribal valley, spread over 1002 km² and 400 villages, Between 77.45' and 78.7'20" East to 30.31' and 31.3'3" North. It is defined in the east, by the river Yamuna and by river Tons in the west, the northern part comprises Uttarkashi district, and some parts of Himachal Pradesh, the Dehradun tehsil forms its southern periphery.
Modes of livelihood in this region are agriculture and animal husbandry, which in the upper region is mostly for self-sustenance, as merely 10 percent of cultivated area is irrigated. Milk, wool and meat are an integral part of the local economy.
In 1829, Jaunsar-Bawar was incorporated in Chakrata tehsil, prior to which it had been a part of Punjab state of Sirmur, till the British conquered it along with Dehradun after the 1814 war with the Gurkhas. Before the establishment of British Indian Army cantonment in 1866, the entire area was known as Jaunsar-Bawar, and the name continued to be in popular use for the region, till early 20th century. While western Hindi was popular in most of the neighbouring hill areas, Jaunsari language, part of the Central Pahari languages was spoken by most of the people of the region.
Fest and Fairs of Jaunsar
Bissu: Bissu is spring fest falls in month april. This is celebrated near of shankrant of baishak comes to restore vigour, vitality and strength and to set the villager ready for the ensuing harvesting season. This is bloom of spring and lusty tree of red rhododendron against the background of white snow provide joyful sense for celebration .The festival is celebrate in the name of God Mahasu and Silgur, god of sheep is worshiped. Preparation of fest being start long before of the day. General cleaning house taking place and fresh stock of liquor are brewed which should last up to next fest Mond.
Bissu…the festival occasion serves to replenish their stock of domestic goods and house hold material .
Bow and arrow:On Bissu fest a event of bow and arrows is played. Men make a strong bow and arrows,which required for the mock fight which are an essential part of this festival old socks ,woolen pads for legs, and other material for this purpose are taken out and repair made men try to keep their old weapon intact, year to year but this are made a new for younger person. This is a kind of arena the game partner are selected randomly for mock fight. This fight bring a new charm for audience.
Sankrant : This is the first day of month have special significance .early in the morning the bajgi announces the day with beat drum. Young boys go to jungle to bring Burans flower. They make garlands of the Burans flower and place them at the door of their house After placing garland on door and on village temple the entire village gather in aangan to dance.Bada bisu is the main day of celebration at this day entire village goes out in a procession to some open spot. Other village is also gather here and celebrate Bissu. In the evening all are collected at village aangan to dance.
Jagra festival is connected with the worship of Mahasu devata. It is held towards the end of August in Jaunsar Bawar region of Dehradun area.
Laksha Grah Fair
Laksha Grah fair is held at Lakhamandal in the area of Dehradun in the month of Bhadra (August-September), every year. Lakhamandal is situated near Dehradun on the banks of the river Yamuna, at an elevation of 1,110.36m above sea level.
Mond is an important and a major festival of Jaunsar Bawar region. While Bissu is an important spring festival, Mond is a bigger one still, organized on a large scale, crossing the Chakrata on the Lakhamandal road) is said to attract the largest number of participants.
Mond …. It is major festival in Jaunsar and bawar. Mond is bigger one and still, organized on larger scale, crossing the khat boundaries. At all places Mond attract people even from outside Jaunsar bawar the mond of dungiyara is said to attracts the larger number of participant.
Dungiyara is about five mile south east of Chakrata, on Lakamandal raod, one mile ahead karakhota. In the month of aasad after a gap of many year Mond is held here. It is a social festival with an economic background .it is inseparably associated with fishing and therefore always take place by the side of a stream.
The religious aspect is provided by God Mahasu who has to be propitiated on several occasion. In may-june is the time when monsoon sets in and flow of water is more in river and kadas and Mond is organized at important place in Jaunsar and bawar :
An annual festival in honour of Shilguru, the god of sheep, is held in the month of Sravana (August) in Jaunsar Bawar region. This festival is generally known as Nunai, such as is held at Baila and Jadi. At Lohari, the festival is known as Shemiat, and it is held on the first day of Sravana, usually just a few days before the Nunai is held in Jadi.
The Panchon festival is held in the month of October in the Jaunsar Bawar region.
Magh is the most important fest of Jaunsar and bawar, Magh named after the winter month of January February when the fest takes place. It is more than ordinary fest it is a season festival extending well over a whole month, it is celebrated after the rabi crop. And it is avail time to meet their relatives from far and near. The fun and forlic not only release, but also in maintain social solidarity. Because of snow extreme cold of this time of year, it is become almost impossible to carry out any kind of outdoor work. It is time for rest, merry making and enjoyment, symbolizing victory on most unfavorable natural environment. Lagda the actual celebration begin few day before of the fest the first day is known as lagda day. This day early in the morning all the village bajgis go together to the village deity’s temple to play the musical instruments.
Maroj on the day after lagda whole Jaunsar bawar celebrate the Magh festival. The day is called maroj. All the goat and sheep of village family is taken to village angan and then after praying the deity start to killed.
It is a festival celebrated in Jaunsar and bawar in middle month of July after completion there crop plantation in field. It celebrated in many khats on different different days. People worship their village deity and collect to a particular nearest open spot to organize a fair.